Without rapid and sustained greenhouse gas emissions reductions, the effects that the climate has on global society will be increasingly felt and could in some cases intensify by the end of the century. The AVOID 2 research programme has modelled how climate change will affect people across the globe, such as through water availability and exposure to flooding and heatwaves. If no mitigation efforts had been made, high greenhouse gas emissions would result in global warming of around 5°C by 2100. This would result in significant impacts. The research shows that limiting global warming to around 2°C by 2100, referred to here as a ‘below 2°C future’, could avoid a substantial proportion of the effects associated with a 5°C increase in temperature.